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Cucurmin – More Studies Relating to Gallbladder Function, Parasites, Safety for Humans, Cancer

4th April 2007 by Arrow Durfee Posted in Uncategorized

The effect of curcumin and placebo on human gall-bladder function: an ultrasound study
Rasyid & Lelo
1 Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia
2 Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia
Correspondence to: Lelo Bagian Farmakologi, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Sumatera Utara. Jl. Dr Mansur 5, Kampus Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia. E-mail:


Background: The extract of medicinal plants containing curcumin is traditionally believed to have a positive contraction effect on the human gall-bladder.

Aims: To compare the effect of 20 mg curcumin or placebo on the gall-bladder volume of healthy volunteers.

Methods: A randomized, double blind and crossover design study was carried out in 12 healthy volunteers (seven males and five females). Ultrasonography examination was carried out serially to measure the gall-bladder volume. The data obtained was analysed by paired Student’s t-test.

Results: The fasting gall-bladder volumes of 15.74 ± 4.29 mL on curcumin and 15.98 ± 4.08 mL on placebo were similar (P > 0.20). The gall-bladder volume was reduced within the period after curcumin administration. The percentage of gall-bladder volume reduction at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 h after 20 mg curcumin administration were 11.8 ± 6.9, 16.8 ± 7.4, 22.0 ± 8.5 and 29.3 ± 8.3%, respectively, which was statistically significant compared to placebo.

Conclusion: On the basis of the present findings, it appears that curcumin induces contraction of the human gall-bladder.

This article is cited by:
Marion Man-Ying Chan, Naga Suresh Adapala, Dunne Fong. (2005) Curcumin overcomes the inhibitory effect of nitric oxide on Leishmania. Parasitology Research 96:1, 49
Nita Chainani-Wu. (2003) Safety and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Curcumin: A Component of Tumeric (Curcuma longa). The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 9:1, 161
Abdul Rasyid PhD, Abdul Rashid Abdul Rahman PhD, Kamaruddin Jaalam PhD and Aznan Lelo PhD
. (2002) Effect of different curcumin dosages on human gall bladder. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 11:4, 314–318
Abstract Abstract and References Full Text Article Full Article PDF

InSynergyPubMed (MEDLINE)CrossRefBy authorRasyidLelo


Marion Man-Ying Chan1 , Naga Suresh Adapala1 and Dunne Fong2

(1) Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Temple University School of Medicine, 3400 North Broad St., Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA
(2) Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
Received: 2 February 2005 Accepted: 9 February 2005 Published online: 17 March 2005

Abstract Upon Leishmania infection, macrophages are activated to produce nitrogen and oxygen radicals simultaneously. It is well established that the infected host cells rely on nitric oxide (NO) as the major weapon against the intracellular parasite. In India where leishmaniasis is endemic, the spice turmeric is used prolifically in food and for insect bites. Curcumin, the active principle of turmeric, is a scavenger of NO. This report shows that curcumin protects promastigotes and amastigotes of the visceral species, Leishmania donovani, and promastigotes of the cutaneous species, L. major, against the actions of S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine (SNAP) and DETANONOate, which release NO, 3-morpholino-sydnonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1), which releases NO and superoxide, and peroxynitrite, which is formed from the reaction of NO with superoxide. Thus, curcumin, as an antioxidant, is capable of blocking the action of both NO and NO congeners on the Leishmania parasite.

Marion Man-Ying Chan
Phone: +1-215-7078262
Fax: +1-215-7077788
References secured to subscribers.


The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine
Safety and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Curcumin: A Component of Tumeric (Curcuma longa)
Feb 2003, Vol. 9, No. 1 : 161 -168

Nita Chainani-Wu, DMD, MPH, MS
Department of Stomatology, University of California, San Francisco, CA
Introduction: Tumeric is a spice that comes from the root Curcuma longa, a member of the ginger family, Zingaberaceae. In Ayurveda (Indian traditional medicine), tumeric has been used for its medicinal properties for various indications and through different routes of administration, including topically, orally, and by inhalation. Curcuminoids are components of tumeric, which include mainly curcumin (diferuloyl methane), demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcmin.

Objectives: The goal of this systematic review of the literature was to summarize the literature on the safety and anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin.

Methods: A search of the computerized database MEDLINE™ (1966 to January 2002), a manual search of bibliographies of papers identified through MEDLINE, and an Internet search using multiple search engines for references on this topic was conducted. The PDR for Herbal Medicines, and four textbooks on herbal medicine and their bibliographies were also searched.

Results: A large number of studies on curcumin were identified. These included studies on the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antifungal properties of curcuminoids. Studies on the toxicity and anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin have included in vitro, animal, and human studies. A phase 1 human trial with 25 subjects using up to 8000 mg of curcumin per day for 3 months found no toxicity from curcumin. Five other human trials using 1125-2500 mg of curcumin per day have also found it to be safe. These human studies have found some evidence of anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin. The laboratory studies have identified a number of different molecules involved in inflammation that are inhibited by curcumin including phospholipase, lipooxygenase, cyclooxygenase 2, leukotrienes, thromboxane, prostaglandins, nitric oxide, collagenase, elastase, hyaluronidase, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interferon-inducible protein, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and interleukin-12 (IL-12).

Conclusions: Curcumin has been demonstrated to be safe in six human trials and has demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity. It may exert its anti-inflammatory activity by inhibition of a number of different molecules that play a role in inflammation.

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6 Responses to “Cucurmin – More Studies Relating to Gallbladder Function, Parasites, Safety for Humans, Cancer”

  1. Arrow Durfee Says:

    1: Int J Pharm. 2007 Feb 7;330(1-2):155-63. Epub 2006 Sep 23. PubMed
    Curcumin-phospholipid complex: Preparation, therapeutic evaluation and pharmacokinetic study in rats.

    Maiti K,
    Mukherjee K,
    Gantait A,
    Saha BP,
    Mukherjee PK.
    School of Natural Product Studies, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032, India.
    A novel formulation of curcumin in combination with the phospholipids was developed to overcome the limitation of absorption and to investigate the protective effect of curcumin-phospholipid complex on carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver damage in rats. The antioxidant activity of curcumin-phospholipid complex (equivalent of curcumin 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) and free curcumin (100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) was evaluated by measuring various enzymes in oxidative stress condition. Curcumin-phospholipid complex significantly protected the liver by restoring the enzyme levels of liver glutathione system and that of superoxide dismutase, catalase and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances with respect to carbon tetrachloride treated group (P

  2. Arrow Durfee Says:

    Consumption of the putative chemopreventive agent curcumin by cancer patients: assessment of curcumin levels in the colorectum and their pharmacodynamic consequences.

    Garcea G, Berry DP, Jones DJ, Singh R, Dennison AR, Farmer PB, Sharma RA, Steward WP, Gescher AJ.

    Department of Oncology, RKCSB, LRI, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE2 7LX, United Kingdom.

    Curcumin, a constituent of the spice turmeric, has been shown to reduce the adenoma burden in rodent models of colorectal cancer accompanied by a reduction of levels of the oxidative DNA adduct 3-(2-deoxy-beta-di-erythro-pentafuranosyl)-pyr[1,2-alpha]-purin-10(3H)one (M(1)G) and of expression of the enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). We tested the hypothesis that pharmacologically active levels of curcumin can be achieved in the colorectum of humans as measured by effects on levels of M(1)G and COX-2 protein. Patients with colorectal cancer ingested curcumin capsules (3,600, 1,800, or 450 mg daily) for 7 days. Biopsy samples of normal and malignant colorectal tissue, respectively, were obtained at diagnosis and at 6 to 7 hours after the last dose of curcumin. Blood was taken 1 hour after the last dose of curcumin. Curcumin and its metabolites were detected and quantitated by high-performance liquid chromatography with detection by UV spectrophotometry or mass spectrometry. M(1)G levels and COX-2 protein expression were measured by immunoslot blot and Western blotting, respectively. The concentrations of curcumin in normal and malignant colorectal tissue of patients receiving 3,600 mg of curcumin were 12.7 +/- 5.7 and 7.7 +/- 1.8 nmol/g, respectively. Curcumin sulfate and curcumin glucuronide were identified in the tissue of these patients. Trace levels of curcumin were found in the peripheral circulation. M(1)G levels were 2.5-fold higher in malignant tissue as compared with normal tissue (P

    Publication Types

  3. Arrow Durfee Says:


    1: Blood. 2004 Apr 15;103(8):3175-84. Epub 2003 Dec 18. Links
    Nuclear factor-kappaB and STAT3 are constitutively active in CD138+ cells derived from multiple myeloma patients, and suppression of these transcription factors leads to apoptosis.

    Bharti AC,
    Shishodia S,
    Reuben JM,
    Weber D,
    Alexanian R,
    Raj-Vadhan S,
    Estrov Z,
    Talpaz M,
    Aggarwal BB.
    Department of Bioimmunotherapy, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston 77030, USA.
    Chemoresistance is a major problem in the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Because of the central role of the nuclear transcription factors nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in chemoresistance, cell survival, and proliferation, we investigated whether MM cells derived from patients express activated NF-kappaB and STAT3 and if their suppression induces apoptosis. We assayed CD138+ cells from the bone marrow of 22 MM patients and checked for the activated forms of NF-kappaB and STAT3 by immunocytochemistry. We found that MM cells from all the patients expressed the activated forms of NF-kappaB and STAT3 but to a variable degree (NF-kappaB: low, 3 of 22; moderate, 5 of 22; or high, 14 of 22; STAT3: none, 1 of 22; low, 3 of 22; moderate, 5 of 22; or high, 14 of 22). Constitutive activation of NF-kappaB was in some cases also independently confirmed by electrophoretic mobility gel shift assay. In contrast to MM patients, activated forms of NF-kappaB and STAT3 were absent in cells from healthy individuals. Suppression of NF-kappaB and STAT3 activation in MM cells by ex vivo treatment with curcumin (diferuloylmethane) resulted in a decrease in adhesion to bone marrow stromal cells, cytokine secretion, and in the viability of cells. When compared with curcumin, dexamethasone was less effective in suppression of NF-kappaB activation and induction of apoptosis in myeloma cells. Overall, our results indicate that fresh cells from MM patients express constitutively active NF-kappaB and STAT3, and suppression of these transcription factors inhibits the survival of the cells.
    PMID: 15070700 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  4. Arrow Durfee Says:


    Suppression of the nuclear factor-kappaB activation pathway by spice-derived phytochemicals: reasoning for seasoning.

    Aggarwal BB,
    Shishodia S.
    Cytokine Research Laboratory, Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Box 143, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030, USA.
    The activation of nuclear transcription factor kappaB has now been linked with a variety of inflammatory diseases, including cancer, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, diabetes, allergy, asthma, arthritis, Crohn’s disease, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, osteoporosis, psoriasis, septic shock, and AIDS. Extensive research in the last few years has shown that the pathway that activates this transcription factor can be interrupted by phytochemicals derived from spices such as turmeric (curcumin), red pepper (capsaicin), cloves (eugenol), ginger (gingerol), cumin, anise, and fennel (anethol), basil and rosemary (ursolic acid), garlic (diallyl sulfide, S-allylmercaptocysteine, ajoene), and pomegranate (ellagic acid). For the first time, therefore, research provides “reasoning for seasoning.”
    PMID: 15659827 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  5. Homeopathic Remedies Says:

    Curcumin is the main biologically active phytochemical compound of Turmeric. It is extracted, concentrated, standardized and researched. Curcumin, which gives the yellow color to turmeric, was first isolated almost two centuries ago, and its structure as diferuloylmethane was determined in 1910. Extensive research within the last half a century has proven that its renowned range of medicinal properties, once associated with Turmeric, are due to Curcumin.

  6. Homeopathic Remedies Says:

    Homeopathic remedies have worked for over a 100′s of

    years but only if you know what ingredients to use for your

    illness. The information to this was written log ago with

    recorded results. Doctors noticed these so called home

    remedies have been working when modern medicine

    failed. I only know of one book that has these forgotten

    home remedies all in one place. A bible of homeopathic

    remedies with mother tested and approved by doctors

    methods. 1,000 of these lost methods are waiting for

    discovery again.