Pomegranate – a powerful superfood with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties
17th April 2007 by Arrow Durfee Posted in Uncategorized
Review of current research
Below are 13 reports from late 2005 to present (PubMed; Ref. 3) on pomegranate as an antioxidant food source. Original abstracts from PubMed are provided followed by a synopsis for general consumers.
1. Mertens-Talcott SU, Jilma-Stohlawetz P, Rios J, Hingorani L, Derendorf H.
Pharmaceutics Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA.
Absorption, metabolism, and antioxidant effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum l.) polyphenols after ingestion of a standardized extract in healthy human volunteers.
J. Agric. Food Chem. 2006 Nov 15;54(23):8956-61.
Abstract. The intake of polyphenols has been demonstrated to have health-promoting and disease-preventive effects. The pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), which is rich in several polyphenols, has been used for centuries in ancient cultures for its medicinal purposes. The potential health benefits of pomegranate polyphenols have been demonstrated in numerous in vitro studies and in vivo experiments. This study investigated the absorption and antioxidant effects of a standardized extract from pomegranate in healthy human volunteers after the acute consumption of 800 mg of extract. Results indicate that ellagic acid (EA) from the extract is bioavailable, with an observed C(max) of 33 ng/mL at t(max) of 1 h. The plasma metabolites urolithin A, urolithin B, hydroxyl-urolithin A, urolithin A-glucuronide, and dimethyl ellagic acid-glucuronide were identified by HPLC-MS. The antioxidant capacity measured with the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay was increased with a maximum effect of 32% after 0.5 h, whereas the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was not affected. The inflammation marker interleukin-6 (IL-6) was not significantly affected after 4 h after the consumption of the extract. Overall, this study demonstrated the absorbability of EA from a pomegranate extract high in ellagitannin content and its ex vivo antioxidant effects.
Synopsis. These authors examined the rate of absorption into human blood of ellagic acid extracted from pomegranate juice. Maximum blood levels of ellagic acid were reached in one hour after consumption and maximum antioxidant effect assessed by ORAC was reached in 30 minutes.
2. Pantuck AJ, Leppert JT, Zomorodian N, Aronson W, Hong J, Barnard RJ, Seeram N, Liker H, Wang H, Elashoff R, Heber D, Aviram M, Ignarro L, Belldegrun A.
Department of Urology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095-1738, USA.
Phase II study of pomegranate juice for men with rising prostate-specific antigen following surgery or radiation for prostate cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2006 Jul 1;12(13):4018-26.
Abstract. PURPOSE: Phytochemicals in plants may have cancer preventive benefits through antioxidation and via gene-nutrient interactions. We sought to determine the effects of pomegranate juice (a major source of antioxidants) consumption on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression in men with a rising PSA following primary therapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A phase II, Simon two-stage clinical trial for men with rising PSA after surgery or radiotherapy was conducted. Eligible patients had a detectable PSA > 0.2 and 0.05). After 3 months, the extent of stress-induced ischemia decreased in the pomegranate group (SDS -0.8 +/- 2.7) but increased in the control group (SDS 1.2 +/- 3.1, p