Ozone and Smog – The Truth
26th June 2007 by Arrow Durfee Posted in Uncategorized
Nice little into video to how ozone can purify air:
Ozone and Smog –the Truth
Ozone Regulations Assembly Bill 2276.
Chemical smog pollution main cause, nitrogen dioxide oxidant effects EPA air quality levels, health.
With regrets Applied Ozone Systems has to inform the people of CA that their elected officials thru lies and deception have brainwashed the Governor into signing a new bill into law that goes into effect on or before December 31, 2008. This insidious bill AB 2276 infringes upon our Constitutional Rights and the freedom of what one does or electrical appliances used in the privacy of their own home or business. It may also turn law abiding citizens into common criminals.
Assembly Bill AB 2276 Regulates Ozone Generators Air Purifier Sales
CA Assembly Bill 2276 (2006, Pavley), directs the Air Resource Board (ARB) to develop and adopt a regulation to limit the ozone emitted from indoor air cleaning devices in order to protect public health. The regulations would include emissions standards for ozone from air cleaning devices; a ban on the sale of higher emitting devices and requirements for public disclosure of information on ozone levels emitted from air cleaning devices. ARB staff have scheduled a workshop for December 13, 2006 to discuss requirements of AB 2276 and obtain input from interested stakeholders and members of the public on the development of the regulation.
They say no government agency has clear authority to control ozone emissions from devices but this law gives the CA Air Resources Board to regulate the amount of ozone the air purifiers produce. They claim the amount of ozone the air purifiers produce is 3 times higher than the state outdoor air quality standard that results in levels that are equal to a stage 1 smog alert. This information was stated in the Consumer Reports negative article on ozone air purifiers where they had the monitor reading the concentrations directly where the air comes out with the highest reading possible instead of the room concentration levels. The current standard is 90 parts per billion or 0.09ppm, which is equal to 90 drops in 12,000 gallons of water.
You can read the bill in PDF format.
Lets look at some other possibilities and who started this misinformation that may explain why this has happened.
In 1975 when the CA Air Resources Board set the new standard as ozone being the main oxidant in smog and prior to this there was a lot of negative information on ozone from the government trying to suppress the truth about ozone. This action was mainly done in the 1960′s to push chlorine for purifying water instead of using ozone. Medical ozone applications were a great threat to the medical and pharmaceutical companies. So now again they come up with their scientific evidence to promote ozone as smog. Anyone can do testing or research and make the results come out as good or bad, just like the pharmaceutical companies do to make promote their drugs.
By measuring pollutants in air, scientists were uncertain about which of the photochemical oxidants, such as ozone or nitrogen dioxide, hydrocarbons, photochemical aerosols and possible other unknown oxidants, were associated with certain health effects caused by smog. Back then the term Oxidant referred to a group of chemicals that result from chemical reactions occurring in the presence of ultraviolet light. For the purpose of setting air quality standards in CA, oxidant was defined as an oxidizing chemical that reacts with a reagent that cannot be oxidized by the oxygen (O2) molecule contained in air. But when you add the third molecule (O3) ozone is one of the most powerful natural oxidants there is.
Pollution is defined as noxious chemicals or refuse that impairs purity. The two main sources of pollution are from automobiles and industry. The offensive compounds with bad odors cause respiratory problems and runny eyes. The most damaging radicals are nitrogen dioxide, nitric acid, nitrous oxide, sulfur dioxide, sulfuric acid, carbonic acid and carbon monoxide. The largest source of contamination that no one seems to mention is chlorine. Chlorinated compounds are among the largest polluter in the outside air and where ever the chlorinated compounds are used in they will evaporate into the atmosphere.
Scientists found that health effects such as eye irritation, visibility effects and crop damage correlated well with photochemical oxidants measured as a group by ARB’s potassium iodide method. The EPA and Air Resources Board has been using ozone monitors in major cities to measure smog and pollutant levels for some time now. Most ozone monitor manufactures will tell you not to operate the sensor or monitor and rely on the readings where there is high levels of chlorine or other halogen compounds, sulfur compounds, strong volatile organic compounds from cleaning solvent vapors, paint thinners, dry cleaning fluids, gasoline vapors, or hydrocarbons, urine or ammonia compounds, acid gases like sulfuric and nitric acid fumes. If the EPA and the Air Resources Board truly wanted accurate pollutant levels they should use a VOC sensor instead of using ozone sensors where there is no ozone that give false readings. Most ozone sensors will give a higher reading with most all strong oxidants. The UV absorption method at 254 nm is more specific to ozone.
Some of the health effects of ozone in higher concentrations like burning your eyes and coughing are similar to those of other oxidants that make up smog. But to make others believe their lies they had to come up with some new scientific research to prove their point using tax payer dollars. There was testing done on rats and crops at high concentrations to show the damage. If they had used low natural concentrations they would have seen how the crops flourished. All plants create ozone thru photosynthesis and it is naturally produced in humans as well.
History of Ozone and Oxidant Ambient Air Quality Standards
Go to the following page and print it out because you will need it to see what we are referring too.
History of the ambient air quality standards.
The Air Resources Board (ARB) and previous health agencies have been involved in setting ambient air quality standards since the 1950′s. In the early years, Calif. agencies set standards for oxidant, a term describing a mixture of known and unknown oxidizing air pollutants. As there newly created scientific information emerged over the years, it became clear (in there eyes only) that ozone was the primary cause of respiratory health effects within the oxidant class.
The first ambient outdoor air quality standard in CA was set in the Los Angeles area because of the severity of smog there. The Los Angeles Air Pollution Control District adopted a three-stage alert system for oxidants and three other pollutants in June of 1955. This system was designed to prevent the possibility of an air pollution catastrophe. In 1959, the CA Legislature authorized the Dept of Public Health (DPH) to set statewide ambient air standards for Calif. During the same year they adopted standards for six air pollutants, including a one hour oxidant standard of 0.15 parts per million.
The Air Resources Board (ARB) was formed in 1967 and assumed the responsibility of setting ambient air quality standards for oxidant and other air pollutants. Over successive years, the ARB adopted increasingly health protective standards for oxidant, and then ozone. In 1969, the ARB adopted a one-hour oxidant standard of 0.1ppm, but revised it to 0.10ppm the following year, adding a decimal place. This change allowed for a more health protective standard. Also in 1970, the ARB analyzed available data and determined that the then existing oxidant standard was below the threshold associated with aggravation of respiratory disease, establishing the standard at a level below which the principal health effects would occur. In 1975, ARB set a standard specifically for ozone (instead of total oxidant), using the ultraviolet photometry chemical analysis method which is specific for ozone. Prior to 1975 they used the neutral buffered potassium iodide method that had a few faults. In 1988, ARB reduced the level of the standard to 0.09ppm.
In the years before the ARB was formed, an ambient air quality standard was set without a margin of safety. In other words, an air quality standard was set at the lowest concentration of a pollutant at which harmful health effects had been observed and reported (DPH, 19591). In the present day, air quality standards define clean air, and represent the maximum amount of a pollutant that can be present in outdoor air without harm to the publics health. Air quality standards are designed to provide a margin of safety for the most sensitive members of the public.
In June of 1955, the Los Angeles Air Pollution Control District established a three-stage smog alert system for four air pollutants, including ozone. This system was designed to prevent a possible air pollution disaster in Los Angeles County. First Alert 0.5ppm over 2 hours (Relatively Safe) / Second Alert 1.0ppm (Harmful) / Third Alert 1.5ppm (Dangerous).
The owner of Applied Ozone Systems can relate to the high smog in the mid and late 1950s in Los Angeles and your eyes burned continually throughout the day. Back then the smog was so thick it was like a fog and does not remember the smog smelling like ozone but admits there could have been some ozone at ground level because of all the electric trolley cars. The trolley cars ran down the middle of the main street with metal poles protruding from the top that touched the high voltage wires to run the electric motors and every now and then you could see the sparks. The sparking will produce some ozone in the presence of oxygen. Maybe this is how they originally got the idea to put the blame on ozone but this is a little extreme. But take into consideration ozone is a colorless gas that you can not see but in the outer atmosphere it makes the sky blue.
Back when they had these high pollution levels of smog the Dept of Health and the Air Resources Board were probably under pressure to fix the air pollution problem as well as possible law suites from the health problems created. Car and diesel fuel had lead and may not have been as refined as it is today with the additives, catalytic converters, and running the engines hotter to burn cleaner with less emissions. The technology was just not available then. If ozone was the cause why was there so much done to blend new fuels and other changes by the auto manufactures to help reduce the smog levels in later years? Because making changes slowly would not hurt the economy.
EPA statements: What Causes Bad Ozone? Ground-level or bad ozone is not emitted directly into the air, but is created by chemical reactions between oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the presence of sunlight. Emissions from industrial facilities and electric utilities, motor vehicle exhaust, gasoline vapors, and chemical solvents are some of the major sources of NOx and VOC. NOx, is the generic term for all that contain nitrogen and oxygen in varying amounts.
Applied Ozone comments: The percentage of gases included in the natural dry air we breath are Nitrogen, (N2) is 78.08 percent. Oxygen (O2) is 20.95 percent. Argon (Ar) is 0.93 percent. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is 0.033 percent. Neon, (Ne) is 0.0018 percent. Helium, (He) is 0.00052 percent. Methane, (CH4) is 0.0002 percent. Krypton, (Kr is 0.00011 percent. Nitrogen oxide or nitrous oxide, (N2O) is 0.00005 percent. Hydrogen, (H2) is 0.00005 percent. Since nitrogen and oxygen are the most common here they will show up in a lot of other chemical formulas including O3.
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is the main ingredient in the formation of ground-level smog. Nitrogen dioxide is a reddish-brown gas with a pungent and irritating smell that is produced by combustion or heat in buses, cars, truck engines from the gasoline and diesel fuel. Any type of fossil fuel burned from kerosene heaters, un-vented gas stoves and heaters, power generation, primary metal production, trash incineration, welding, tobacco smoke and other sources. The nitrogen dioxide emissions don’t just flow out of the exhaust tailpipes during the day they flow during the night, all 24 hours of the day.
Health effects associated with nitrogen dioxide and other nitrogen compounds may include eye, nose, respiratory and throat irritation. May also result in abdominal pain, coughing, difficulty in breathing, fatigue, headache, and nausea. Nitrogen dioxide acts mainly as an irritant affecting the mucosa of the eyes, nose, throat, and respiratory tract. Extremely high-dose exposure may result in pulmonary edema and diffuse lung injury. Continued exposure after several weeks; can contribute to the development of acute or chronic bronchitis, scarring of the lungs, rapid shallow breathing, rapid heartbeat and inadequate oxygen flow. Low-level exposure may cause increased bronchial reactivity in some asthmatics, decreased lung function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and increased risk of respiratory infections, especially in young children.
Nitric acid is highly corrosive and toxic and produced by mixing nitrogen dioxide with water in the presence of oxygen or air to oxidize the nitrous acid also produced by the reaction. It transforms in the air to form gaseous nitric acid and toxic organic nitrates. It is produced for commercial use in the manufacture of explosives, metal refining and fertilizers.
Nitric Oxide (NO) only lasts for 6 to 10 seconds and then converted by oxygen and water into nitrates and nitrites. Nitric oxide occurs naturally in the outer environment, from lightening, temperatures at 1000 degrees C during the combustion of fuels from engines and in the human body for the synthesis of other body functions because it is an oxidizer and a good free radical. Nitric Oxide like ozone occurs in animals, plant life and in humans as part of the natural immune system for killing bacteria and other forms of pathogens along with many other bio-chemical effects. Nitric oxide is relatively non-toxic, but at high concentrations the health effects include changes to lung function.
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a colorless non-inflammable gas, with a pleasant, slightly-sweet odor. It is used in surgery and dentistry where it is commonly known as laughing gas due to the euphoric effects of inhaling it. Nitrous oxide is also used as an oxidizer in racing engines. Nitrous oxide is present in the atmosphere where it acts as a powerful greenhouse gas. It is also used in aerosol cans as a propellant for whipped cream and used in potato chips.
The corona discharge air purifiers will produce some of these nitrogen compounds the same way it does naturally in the environment. Using them properly will not create any bad effects. Using one improperly in a small bedroom while sleeping with the door shut and no ventilation the amount of oxygen decreases. Since there are higher nitrogen levels in the air there will be higher nitrogen compound levels produced and you may experience some of the bad health effects. Normally the lungs can absorb oxygen at higher rates from air containing ozone which may explain why it helps with allergies, bronchial, or asthma conditions. The health effects of higher gaseous oxides in the home are due to low oxygen levels and the effects will diminish in a day or two after turning down the ozone or shutting the air purifier off. Ozone produced from air with nitrogen oxides has greater bactericidal properties so some may say the benefits received outweigh the risks.
What’s the difference between the nitrogen compounds found in the home compared to that in smog? Gasoline manufactured from petroleum contains more than 150 other chemical additives to improve performance. The Material Safety Data Sheet for unleaded gasoline shows at least fifteen hazardous carcinogenic chemicals occurring in various amounts from 5 to 35 percent by volume of gasoline.
Ozone can only be created from oxygen and there is no such thing as bad ozone. It is impossible to produce ozone through chemical actions of other compounds. In the past they said the ozone was formed by the ultra violet rays from the sun. There are basically four main wavelengths in the ultraviolet radiation spectrum ranging from 1000 to 3900 Angstrom units. UV-A light is in the longer wavelength from 3250 to 3900 that occurs in sunlight at ground level. UV-B light is in the middle wavelength from 2950 to 3250 and provides some germicidal action. UV-C light is in the shorter wavelength from 2000 to 2900 and used mainly for the destruction of bacteria. UV-D light is the shortest wavelength from 1000 to 2000 Angstrom units that produces ozone and you need the shorter wavelength to split any of the several types of molecules.
The short-wave ultraviolet does not occur naturally at the earths surface, because the atmosphere screens out sunlight radiation below 2950 Angstrom units. If any photochemical reactions occur and some of the short wave ultraviolet rays happen to seek through the thick brown smog haze and produced a few of the ozone molecules, the ozone would quickly oxidize the chemical pollutants and revert right back to oxygen. If this would happen on a large scale there would not be any smog.
EPA statement: Hydrocarbons are a precursor to ground-level ozone, a serious air pollutant in cities across the United States. A key component of smog, ground-level ozone is formed by reactions involving hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides in the presence of sunlight. Hydrocarbon emissions result from incomplete fuel combustion and from fuel evaporation.
Applied Ozone comments: Hydrocarbons are chemical compounds that consists only of the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H). Hydrocarbons are combustible, the main components are from fossil fuels like coal, petroleum, and natural gas. The most abundant hydrocarbon is methane. Some saturated hydrocarbons include methane, ethane, propane, butane, and pentane. It is impossible to create ozone from carbon and hydrogen.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are a group of over 100 different chemicals that are formed during the incomplete burning of coal, oil and gas, garbage, or other organic substances. They are found in agricultural burn smoke, asphalt production plants, burning coal and coal tar, cigarette smoke, coking, coal-tar, creosote, crude oil, dyes, forest fires, industrial, medicines, municipal trash incineration facilities, oils, paraffin, plastics, pesticides, roofing tar, smokehouses, solvents, soot, vehicle and truck exhausts, volcanoes, waxes, wastewater treatment plants, and wood smoke. Little more ozone here could be very beneficial.
EPA statements: At ground level, ozone is a harmful pollutant. Ozone pollution is a concern during the summer months because strong sunlight and hot weather result in harmful ozone concentrations in the air we breathe. Many urban and suburban areas throughout the USA have high levels of bad ozone. But many rural areas of the country are also subject to high ozone levels as winds carry emissions hundreds of miles away from their original sources. Healthy people also experience difficulty breathing when exposed to ozone pollution. Because ozone forms in hot weather, anyone who spends time outdoors in the summer may be affected, particularly children, outdoor workers and people exercising. Millions of Americans live in areas where the national ozone health standards are exceeded.
Applied Ozone comment: Ozone is not a pollutant it destroys the bad chemical pollutants. In hot smoggy weather the air is much heavier making it harder for anyone to breath. The lack of winds stagnant the chemical pollution over the cities and the smog pollution just sits there building up creating lower levels of oxygen. Ozone dissipates much faster at higher temperatures with a shorter life span. Ozone is natures defense to the pollutants we create from technology.
EPA statements: How Does Bad Ozone Affect Human Health and the Environment? Breathing ozone can trigger a variety of health problems including chest pain, coughing, throat irritation, and congestion. It can worsen bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma. Bad ozone also can reduce lung function and inflame the linings of the lungs. Repeated exposure may permanently scar lung tissue. Ground-level or ozone also damages vegetation and ecosystems. It leads to reduced agricultural crop and commercial forest yields, reduced growth and survivability of tree seedlings, and increased susceptibility to diseases, pests and other stresses such as harsh weather. In the USA alone, ground-level ozone is responsible for an estimated $500 million in reduced crop production each year. Ground-level ozone also damages the foliage of trees and other plants, affecting the landscape of cities, national parks and forests, and recreation areas.
Applied Ozone comment: This statement would be true if they would remove ozone and replace it with the smog cancer causing chemical pollutants. The health effect symptoms from MSDS state: high concentrations of ozone may cause severe irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract. Exposures above 0.1ppm causes mucus membranes of the mouth, nose and throat to dry but the symptoms can subside when exposure ends. Ozone always reverts back to oxygen and you can not live without it.
EPA statements: What is Happening to the Good Ozone Layer? Ozone is produced naturally in the stratosphere. But this good ozone is gradually being destroyed by man-made chemicals referred to as ozone-depleting substances (ODS), including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydro-chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), halons, methyl bromide, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform. These substances were formerly used and sometimes still are used in coolants, foaming agents, fire extinguishers, solvents, pesticides, and aerosol propellants. Once released into the air these ozone-depleting substances degrade very slowly. In fact, they can remain intact for years as they move through the troposphere until they reach the stratosphere. There they are broken down by the intensity of the suns UV rays and release chlorine and bromine molecules, which destroy the good ozone. Scientists estimate that one chlorine atom can destroy 100,000 good ozone molecules. Research indicates that depletion of the good ozone layer is being reduced worldwide. Thinning of the protective ozone layer can be observed using satellite measurements, particularly over the Polar Regions.
Applied Ozone comment: Ozone can destroy these pollutants, they do not deplete the ozone layer. Ozone is heavier than air and if the other chemicals are heavier than air it would be hard for them to reach the outer layer. Ozone is continually being produced by the ultraviolet rays from the sun when it shines in the outer atmosphere. There is a few months out of the year that do not have sunlight over the polar regions, they are in the dark because of the angle of the sun. So naturally if there are no ultraviolet rays there will be a hole. Ozone acts 3,125 times faster than chlorine and is a 30 percent plus stronger oxidizer. It should only take 1ppm of ozone to destroy 1ppm of chlorine based compounds or other chemical pollutants. Three oxygen molecules make ozone.
Lets look at the natural cycle mother nature has provided for the production of ozone in the outer environment that continues over and over. Oxygen floats upward into the atmosphere and in turn converted into ozone by ultraviolet radiation. Since ozone is heavier than air, it is carried in natural downdrafts into the lower atmosphere. As the ozone falls from the upper atmosphere it cleans the air by oxidizing any pollutant or contaminates which it comes into contact. Being an unstable gas, ozone’s life span is between 20-50 minutes so it may never reach the surface. After completing its job, it simply reverts back to oxygen. The oxygen molecule is never lost, it continues to stay the same and rise again for another cycle.
Every chemical or element has an atomic weight mass in g/mol. The weight of oxygen is 15.9 and the weight of ozone is 48. There are 7 elements lighter than oxygen: Hydrogen (1.0079), Helium (4.0026), Lithium (6.941), Beryllium (9.0122), Boron (10.811), Carbon (12.0107) and Nitrogen (14.0067). Somewhere between 15 and 48 the molecules will be too heavy and cease to rise. Chlorine weight is about 35.4 so its lighter than ozone, nitrous oxide (44), and nitric acid (63). The longer the chemical formula the more atomic weight is added. EPA states the ozone-depleting substances above also have an atomic weight. The chlorofluorocarbons, hydro-chlorofluorocarbons from Freon are heavy along with methyl bromide (94.95), carbon tetrachloride (153.82), and methyl chloroform (133.4). They all seem to be heavier than ozone, so the question is how do they rise to the upper atmosphere to deplete the ozone layer? EPA must have some newly created scientific information other than real common sense scientific information.
Why is there more smog in the summer? There is always the same amount during the winter as there is in the summer. Lets look at the Barometric Pressure or the atmospheric pressure. The higher the pressure helps drive or force more oxygen into the lungs making it easier it is to breathe. The lower the pressure is like going to higher elevations making it harder to breath. On hot days the pressure will be higher and colder days it may be lower. In the hotter days when the smog and pressure are high and there is no wind, the heat can separate the oxygen molecules into singlet making them lighter to rise higher. The pollutants from industry and exhaust fumes are forced down because they are heavier and because of the higher pressure. The oxygen levels at the surface may be between 10 and 15 instead of 21 percent. When the gas is burned in the engine with less oxygen there will be more soot with higher smog and exhaust particle levels. When the flame burns yellow there is more soot, when it burns blue it is cleaner. So with the higher pressure your body is forced to breathe in more of these bad chemical pollutants into the lungs that create the bad health effects.
Temperature also effects the dissolved oxygen concentration in pond or lake water. The hotter the water the less oxygen and the colder it is the higher the dissolved oxygen concentration. So you might be asking yourself if there is less oxygen in the air on these hot smoggy days where is the ozone. Or how does the sunlight or ultraviolet rays penetrate through the thick brown cloud of soot and particulates to make the ozone?
Three government agencies regulate ozone in air, the EPA (regulates ambient air outdoors that we humans breathe). Occupational Safety and Health Administration of the Dept. of Labor regulates the workplace environments for people who work 8 hrs/day, 5-days per week). FDA regulates indoor air quality for (medical device only) persons who may be confined indoors 24 hrs/day, 7 days/week, 365 days/yr. None have the power to regulate the air within your home.
There is a newly released documentary movie titled WHO KILLED THE ELECTRIC CAR? The Air Resources Board was instrumental in killing the General Motors electric car with zero emissions, yet profess to be an organization that seeks better air quality for the safety and welfare of all the people? So its like Ed McCabe says, by calling natures oxygen smog, and diverting your attention away from the real polluters, no one has to clean up the environment! By blaming nature, the huge polluters are never forced to take responsibility for the current dirty engine designs and factories, and never have to incorporate any of the already invented clean energy sources. I am sure Ed would agree that the medical establishment may also have something to do with all the false statements.
Knowing the real causes, the Air Resources Board and EPA could not outlaw gas or diesel fuel to reduce the real cause of the pollution or the other strong oxidants from other sources because this would have brought the economy to a screeching halt. So in their minds knowing ozone is one of the strongest oxidizers known to man and to help the anti-ozone industry in their quest decided to blame it on ozone because its produced naturally in the environment in the upper atmosphere. We do not need any regulations that restrict the amount or use of it. We need more laws promoting the use of it in industry. Using more oxygen and ozone in the applications of burning the fuels would create a cleaner and higher burn temperature, reduce the amount of bad omissions from the incomplete burning and raise oxygen levels. Common sense says you use the good up high to fight the bad nearby.
EPA and their environmental groups argue that tighter ozone standards are needed because the asthma rate has gone up as a result of declining air quality. They also profess the ozone is detrimental to public health especially in the children by putting them at risk for lung illness and respiratory problems while ignoring the thousands of ozone testimonials from those it has helped. They also ignore the facts that these problems may be caused by pharmaceutical drugs and processed foods. Mycoplasma pneumoniae along with other mycoplasmas are common causes of upper respiratory infections, lung disease and severe asthma. Adults and children receive these free of charge in their vaccines, flu shots and dental pain killer shots. These created health problems are extremely beneficial to the medical and drug companies so again they blame ozone to help the economy.
Study Finds No Ozone-Asthma Link
Study Finds No Ozone-Asthma Link
Scholar: Activists, journalists should “check the facts” on air quality
October 25, 2002
RALEIGH — There is no foundation for a widely suggested link between ground-level ozone, or “smog,” and asthma among children, according to a new study by the John Locke Foundation that cautions policymakers and the news media to “check the facts” before coming to conclusions about scientific issues. In the study, Dr. Roy Cordato, vice president for research and resident scholar at the Raleigh-based think tank, examined ozone and childhood-asthma data from North Carolina counties. One of his conclusions was that increasing rates of childhood hospitalizations for asthma were hard to connect to levels of ozone pollution, since there was no evidence that the latter — measured in terms of ozone-alert days per monitor — had been increasing at all. More importantly, Dr. Cordato wrote in a new Spotlight briefing paper, a careful look at the county-by-county statistics found no basis at all for the alleged asthma-ozone link. In fact, he said, for all four years studied the only detectable correlation was negative — “the greater the number of ozone exceedences, the lower the rate of asthma hospital admissions.” Previous reports that suggested a link between smog and asthma in North Carolina, Dr. Cordato continued, had apparently made no effort to examine the available data. “The idea that high asthma rates among children in North Carolina have been the result of ozone pollution has been a consistent and unquestioned given in debates surrounding air quality regulations, such as the recently enacted Clean Smokestacks Bill,” he said. “Next time, lawmakers and the media should check the facts before repeating unfounded and politically motivated allegations.” Dr. Cordato, an economist, is the author of numerous studies on North Carolina air quality, environmental regulation, and related issues for the Locke Foundation and for national research institutes. He argued in the new report that the attempt — by groups such as the American Lung Association, the Public Interest Research Group, and the “Energy Working Group” at Appalachian State University — to sell new regulations as having a potentially beneficial affect on children could prove counterproductive. “Unfortunately, such phanton-chasing in the media and elsewhere does a great disservice to those who are suffering from asthma-related problems, as it distracts out attention and our resources from more likely causes,” Dr. Cordato wrote. For more information about the report read it online at: http://www.johnlocke.org/issues/Spotlights/226_ozone_asthma.pdf)
Honeywell, Inc. and the American Lung Association have been involved in an educational partnership to promote clean indoor air since 1993. Honeywell sponsors the ALA and the ALA sponsors the new AB 2276 regulations on ozone. Letter from Randall Dodd (1-10-07) to EPA and CARB applauds their effort to restrict the sales of ozone air purifiers in the residential market. Randall is president of Clean Air Systems Inc in Bellevue, WA and a Honeywell distributor for the five western states. He wants a complete ban on portable ozone generators in occupied spaces. This would clearly increase sales for Honeywell if they get their way. Sharper Image also shows great support. Looks like some special interests going on here trying to get rid of the competition.
The American Lung Association states there are 630 premature deaths, over 4,900 hospitalizations and emergency room visits and over 4 million school absences attributed to ozone exposure each year. If this is true show us the proof and the death certificates that prove ozone is the cause. EPA and the CARB uses their scientific based information produced by scientists employed by them. So they can have any outcome they want. The latest scientific research on the air purifiers in question by CARB were tested with an ozone monitor on the highest setting from 2 inches to 2 feet from where the air and ozone is discharged. Now most reliable scientists doing research would consider if the air purifier was sized for 2,500 square feet they would place it in an area that size and test the air going into the air purifier for more accurate room concentration levels. EPA says: If used at concentrations that do not exceed public health standards, ozone applied to indoor air does not effectively remove viruses, bacteria, mold, or other biological pollutants. Well over 50 years of reliable scientific research seems to say the opposite, not that it removes them but will kill or oxidize them instead.
Whether this misinformation was done intentional or not it is your hard earned tax dollars they are spending for these inhumane actions. If ozone has helped you for any reason go to the link below and let us know. We need more laws to promote its use for the health and safety of the people. Only the power of the people can prevail here. If this is not stopped now similar laws may take effect in your state.
Its time to stop the big cover-up and 30 years of misinformation. Putting the blame for pollution on ozone is an insult on the intelligence of all the people. Applied Ozone Systems demands to be removed from their list along with the others for selling dangerous ozone air purifiers on the CA Air Resources Board web site. We the people demand all negative information on ozone be removed from all government web sites and printed material. Retract or veto this new law AB 2276 as unlawful along with revising existing laws by removing ozone as the main cause of smog. These laws are highly discreditable and discriminating not only against ozone and our creator but the people that have or that can still benefit from it. You have created a great dishonor not only to yourselves with your false statements but to all federal and state agencies. This and other acts infringes upon our Constitutional Rights and our health freedoms. We also ask the EPA and ALA to do the same and admit their mistakes to the rest of the world. If the EPA and ALA truly cares about the health and safety of the people they should stop their anti-ozone efforts and go after the true causes of pollution.
Just recently EPA listed natural ultra violet rays from the sun as being cancer causing to cover up the real causes of skin cancer. Global warming, more misinformation just to make others richer and for government to get more tax dollars. All of this misinformation is really getting out of hand, our government would work better for the people if they would stop letting the special interest groups control them and paying off the politicians who write the laws. You can HELP SAVE OZONE by going to the following links below and inform others. Learning the real truths can set you free.
Ozone is Not Smog, Ozone is Good and Natural!
Environment News: EPA’s Dirty Little Secrets on Clean Air Revealed
You have our permission to use, copy or reprint this information for the truthful education of others. Applied Ozone Systems
Since the pdf file for the first link in this article is so slow here is the info:
Assembly Bill No. 2276
An act to add Article 8 (commencing with Section 41985) to Chapter 3
of Part 4 of Division 26 of the Health and Safety Code, relating to air
[Approved by Governor September29, 2006. Filed with
Secretary of State September29, 2006.]
AB2276, Pavley.Ozone: indoor air cleaning devices.
(1) Existing law imposes various limitations on emissions of air
contaminants for the control of air pollution from vehicular and
nonvehicular sources, including emissions of volatile organic compounds
from consumer products. Existing law generally designates the State Air
Resources Board as the state agency with the primary responsibility for the
control of vehicular air pollution, and air pollution control districts and air
quality management districts with the primary responsibility for the
control of air pollution from all sources other than vehicular sources.
Existing law requires each district to attain ambient air standards for
specified air pollutants, including, but not limited to, ozone. Existing law
classifies emissions of ozone in nonattainment areas as moderate, serious,
severe, or extreme. Existing law generally sets forth crimes and penalties
for violations of air pollution laws and any rule, regulation, permit, or
order of the state board.
This bill would require the state board, on or before December 31, 2008,
to develop and adopt regulations, consistent with federal law and including
specified elements, to protect public health from ozone emitted by indoor
air cleaning devices, including both medical and nonmedical devices, used
in occupied spaces. Because a violation of these regulations would come
within the existing provision making a violation of state board regulations
a crime, this bill would create a state-mandated local program by
expanding an existing crime. The bill would make related legislative
findings and declarations. The bill would authorize the state board to seek
a preemption waiver from the federal government to authorize the state
board to adopt regulations that are more stringent than federal law.
(2) The California Constitution requires the state to reimburse local
agencies and school districts for certain costs mandated by the state.
Statutory provisions establish procedures for making that reimbursement.
This bill would provide that no reimbursement is required by this act for
a specified reason.
The people of the State of California do enact as follows:
SECTION 1. Article 8 (commencing with Section 41985) is added to
Chapter 3 of Part 4 of Division 26 of the Health and Safety Code, to read:
Article 8. Indoor Air Cleaning Devices
41985. The Legislature finds and declares all of the following:
(a) Ozone is a harmful air pollutant and lung irritant that has serious
health impacts at current levels in outdoor air. The state board has
determined that each year exposure to ozone results in significant numbers
of premature deaths, hospitalizations due to respiratory and cardiac
illnesses, emergency room visits for asthma for children under 18 years of
age, school absences, and restricted activity days.
(b) Ozone exposure poses a serious health hazard, whether exposure is
from outdoor or indoor sources.
(c) Research has demonstrated that long-term exposure to ozone may
permanently damage lung tissue and reduce a person’s breathing ability.
(d) According to recent studies, ozone-generating air cleaning devices
have produced harmful levels of ozone indoors, up to three times the state
outdoor air quality standard of 90 parts per billion within an hour or two of
(e) Ozone is not an effective cleaner for indoor air when operated at
levels that are safe for human occupation. Independent studies cited by the
United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Consumers Union
have shown that ozone-generating air cleaning devices do not destroy
microbes or reduce indoor air pollutants effectively enough to provide any
measurable health benefits.
(f) The state board, the State Department of Health Services, and other
governmental agencies have issued warnings to advise the public not to
use devices that are specifically designed to generate ozone indoors and
advertised or marketed as air cleaning devices.
(g) Ozone emitted from indoor air cleaning devices poses an
unnecessary risk to public health, and, therefore, it is the intent of the
Legislature that the state board establish regulations to promote improved
public health by restricting ozone emissions generated by these devices.
41985.5. For purposes of this article, the following terms have the
(a) “Federal ozone emissions limit for air cleaning devices” means the
level of generation of ozone above which the device would be considered
adulterated or misbranded pursuant to Section 801.415 of Title 21 of the
Code of Federal Regulations, specifically the generation of ozone at a
level in excess of 0.05 part per million by volume of air circulating
through the device or causing an accumulation of ozone in excess of 0.05
part per million by volume of air when measured under standard
conditions at 25 degrees Celsius (77 degrees Fahrenheit) and 760
— 2 —Ch.770
millimeters of mercury in the atmosphere of enclosed space intended to be
occupied by people for extended periods of time.
(b) “Medical device” means “device” as defined in subsection (h) of
Section 321 of Title 21 of the United States Code.
41986. (a) On or before December 31, 2008, the state board shall
develop and adopt regulations, consistent with federal law, to protect
public health from ozone emitted by indoor air cleaning devices, including
both medical and nonmedical devices, used in occupied spaces.
(b) The regulations shall include all of the following elements:
(1) An emission concentration standard for ozone emissions that is
equivalent to the federal ozone emissions limit for air cleaning devices.
(2) Testing procedures for manufacturers to utilize to determine ozone
emissions from devices. In developing the procedures, the state board shall
consider existing and proposed testing methods, including, but not limited
to, those developed by the American National Standards Institute and
(3) Certification procedures that enable the state board to verify that an
indoor air cleaning device meets the emission concentration standard for
ozone emissions using the testing procedures adopted by the state board.
(4) (A) Package labeling requirements that indicate that an indoor air
cleaning device is certified as meeting the emission concentration standard
for ozone emissions.
(B) The state board shall consider recommendations of affected
industries and the public in developing the labeling requirements.
(C) The label for an indoor air cleaning device that is not a medical
device shall include the following statement: “This air cleaner complies
with the federal ozone emissions limit.”
(D) The label for an indoor air cleaning device that is a medical device
shall be labeled in compliance with federal law, including Section 801.415
of Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations.
(c) The regulations may include any or all of the following elements:
(1) A ban on the sale of air cleaning devices that exceed the emission
concentration standard for ozone emissions from indoor air cleaning
devices adopted by the state board.
(2) Procedures for authorizing independent laboratories or other
approved certification organizations to verify products as meeting the
emission concentration standard for ozone emissions from indoor air
cleaning devices adopted by the state board. Any authorization shall
ensure that verification shall be conducted consistent with the testing
procedures adopted by the state board.
(3) An exemption for indoor air cleaning devices that, by design, emit
de minimis levels of ozone during their operation, as determined by the
(4) Any other element the state board determines to be necessary to
protect the public health from emissions of ozone from indoor air cleaning
devices that exceed the emission concentration standard for ozone
emissions from air cleaning devices and are used in occupied spaces.
Ch.770— 3 —
(d) Devices verified by the state board or the United States Food and
Drug Administration as meeting the emission concentration standard for
ozone emissions from indoor air cleaning devices and the labeling
requirements adopted by the state board shall not be subject to further
regulatory requirements for ozone pursuant to this article.
(e) It is the intent of the Legislature that this section be interpreted and
applied in a manner that is consistent with federal law. The regulations
adopted by the state board pursuant to this section shall be consistent with
federal law. The state board may, to the extent a waiver is required, seek a
preemption waiver from the federal government to authorize the state
board to adopt regulations that are more stringent than federal law.
SEC. 2. No reimbursement is required by this act pursuant to Section 6
of Article XIIIB of the California Constitution because the only costs that
may be incurred by a local agency or school district will be incurred
because this act creates a new crime or infraction, eliminates a crime or
infraction, or changes the penalty for a crime or infraction, within the
meaning of Section 17556 of the Government Code, or changes the
definition of a crime within the meaning of Section 6 of Article XIIIB of
the California Constitution.
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